Physical Education Resources

The resources in this section provide an introduction to the importance of physical education, fitness, and exercise to the well-being of people with visual impairments. It also includes ideas for adaptive physical education and strategies to encourage students who are blind or visually impaired to increase participation in gym class.

This section of the BCRS website includes articles on suggested adapted activities, suggested activities for young or multi-disabled blind children, general considerations for physical education and recreation, and resources.

Source: Blind Children's Resource Center (BCRS)

Lauren J. Lieberman and Cathy Houston-Wilson highlight major barriers that impede the inclusion of students with visual impairments in physical education and provide strategies for overcoming those barriers.
Reprinted from Re:VIEW.

Source: American Printing House for the Blind (APH)

Video of physical education games with students who are blind or visually impaired

Source: Florida School for the Deaf and Blind (FSDB)

Collection of resources compiled for use in a three-year study on parent-child physical activity intervention among families of children with visual impairments.

Source: American Printing House for the Blind

Practical tips for adaptations and accommodations of physical education activities for students who are blind or visually impaired

Source: Teaching Visually Impaired

Practical tips for Phys Ed instructors with students who are blind ior visually impaired, including Suggested Adaptations:Development of Fundamental Skills & Games; Body Centered or Individual Sports and Activities; and popular team sports.

Source: Future Reflections (NFB)

Angelo Montagnino offers instructional strategies, suggested adaptations for the development of fundamental skills, specific games, a list of body-centered or individual sports and activities, and popular team sports.

Source: National Federation of the Blind

Parents will find many suggestions to parents on how they can help their children to "make the grade" in physical education.

Source: FamilyConnect

Released in 2013, this instructional resource covers methods of modification and adaptation, and teaching/coaching techniques.

Source: American Foundation for the Blind (AFB Press)

This article in JOPERD: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance by Lauren Lieberman, Monica Lepore, Maria Lepore-Stevens, and Lindsay Ball offers suggestions for accommodations and modifications for the inclusive physical education class and instructional strategies for including students with visual impairment or blindness.


This powerpoint presentation by Justin A. Haegele includes basic information on visual impairment, teaching strategies, activity modifications, and resources on physical education for students with visual impairments.

Source: PE Central

A position paper of the Division on Visual Impairments, Council of Exceptional Children by Louis M. Tutt, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Bob Brasher (2012)


Information and resources on physical education for students with visual impairment, including Blind People in Tandem Racing, and Major Sports and Recreation Resources.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Barbara Cheadle and Allen Harris discuss the benefits of physical education and sports for students who are blind.

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

NCPAD provides guidelines, basic considerations, materials, rules, and the principles of adaptations in recreation programs and activities.

Source: National Center on Physical Activity and Disability (NCPAD)

A microsite from American Printing House for the Blind (APH) with links to numerous articles, equipment, and more.

Source: American Printing House for the Blind (APH)

In a 90-minute recorded webinar, Dr. Lauren Lieberman discusses helping individuals who are deafblind to develop an interest in recreational activities. She offers suggestions on individualizing one's approach, researching communication patterns, developing a plan, and maintaining interest.

Source: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)

John Ross shares his thoughts on physical education programs for students who are blind; Dr. Jim Mastro offers a list of hints for physical education and recreation teachers. From Future Reflections,14(1), (1995)

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

This special issue of Future Reflections features articles on a wide range of topics related to sports and fitness, including physical education, camps, competition, lifestyle, and adventure.

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

The Special Olympics site includes coaching guidelines for athletes with visual impairments, modifications and adaptations.

Source: Special Olympics