Tactile Graphics for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

These websites provide a wealth of information about creating tactile graphics for students who are blind or visually impaired, including maps, diagrams, chart, models, and symbols.
American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)
This brief overview outlines some of the key points in creating tactile graphics.
Ann Gardiner and Chris Perkins "set out an approach to tactile map design and production that will enable anyone to prepare raised graphics that can be understood by, and meet the needs of, visually impaired people."
American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
Part of APH's podcast "Happenings Around the House," This half-hour episode explains how to "think tactile" to create meaningful graphics that are more than raised lines on an image.
Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
BANA-recommended standards and practices for tactile graphics can be downloaded here.  A web-version of the manual is also available.
American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
APH advises on design, symbols, lead lines, labels, indicators and scale for creating effective tactile graphics.
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
Barbara DiFrancesco shares ideas on a wide variety of tactile graphics, focusing on raised-line drawings and their production techniques; available in English and Spanish.
Diagram Center
This flowchart is designed to help determine the purpose of the image, and whether it can be omitted, described, or a tactile graphic should be created.
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
Phil Hatlen lists some crucial considerations in the use of tactile graphics; available in English and Spanish.
Paths to Literacy
Kim Charlson shares tips for introducing young braille readers to tactile graphics and pictures.
Future Reflections, 2003, National Federation of the Blind (NFB)
Robert Jaquiss, Jr., shares pointers for teachers and parents needing to create tactile maps, diagrams, and models, and includes a list of products and resources.
The Reginald Phillips Research Programme
In this introduction to tactile graphics, Sheppard and Aldrich discuss production methods and design considerations, advise on selecting graphics to translate, and offer suggestions for the classroom.
Oregon State University
John Gardner reviews the strengths and limitations of tactile graphics for people who are blind. Included are production methods, a resource list of useful tools, supplies, and vendors.
Perkins eLearning Webcast
In this webcast, educator Lucia Hasty discusses spatial relationship and graphic literacy, moving from models to graphics and strategies for teaching students to read tactile graphics.
International Council for Education of People with Visual Impairment (ICEVI)
Educator Tricia d'Apice discusses the use of audio input to enhance a child's understanding of tactile graphics.

Web-Based Organizations and Internet Resources

Lucia Hasty created this site "to promote excellence in the design and production of braille graphics."  Included are basic information on production methods and techniques, product evaluations, training, and conferences.
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
This list of tactile graphics resources includes contact information and a brief description of each resource; includes many vendors and manufacturers.